DEMOGRAPHICS ECONOMY RETAIL IN SMALL TOWNS TRANSPORT AND PEOPLE TOURISM
MUNICIPAL ANALYSIS AIRPORT RESEARCH REGIONAL ANALYSIS HOUSING DELIVERY PERSPECTIVE Of SA

 

Transport and people

[Extract from the Department of Transport website]
Market Decisions GIS

The role of the Department of Transport is to lead the development of efficient integrated transport systems by creating a framework of sustainable policies and regulators. The main roles of the Department of Transport and its public entities in relation to the transport sector are:  

  • Policy and strategy formulation in all functional areas
  • Substantive regulation in functional areas where DoT has legislative competence
  • Implementation in functional areas where DoT has legislative competence
  • Leadership, coordination and liaison in all functional areas
  • Capacity building in all functional areas
  • Monitoring and evaluation and oversight in all functional areas
  • Stimulate investment and development across all modes of transport
  • Maximise the contribution of transport to the economic and social development goals of the country by providing fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure.

The latest Strategic Objectives in the report is as follows:

  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 1: Efficient and integrated infrastructure network and operations that serve as a catalyst for social and economic development
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 2: A transport sector that is safe and secure
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 3: Improved rural access, infrastructure and mobility
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 4: Improved public transport services
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 5: Increased contribution to job creation
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 6: Increase contribution of transport to environmental protection
  • Strategic Outcome-oriented Goal 7: Effective and efficient management and support

Public Transport

  • Welcome: Introductory Remarks on Government Policy Role in RSA Economy – Prof. Jackie Walters

Policy making and implementation is an important role of government. National and Regional Policies are multi-modal, are important for local, regional and international trade and impact businesses. Transport policies create the space for business to operate within. The policies: affect business and individual behaviour, define what can be done, enhance entrepreneurship and investments (all of which positively affect the economy). Poor policy making and implementation have the opposite effect and negatively affect the economy. Identifying policy issues is good and is an important way to formulate respectable policies with beneficial outcomes however there are challenges which hamper economic growth and add to transport costs. Policies must be stable (for long term investments); monitored (achieve goals and outcomes); amended if outcomes are not achieved. Information systems are important for this process.

  • Progress with the Review of the 1996 White Paper on National Transport Policy – Mr. Moeti Kgamanyane

The Vision of the 1996 White Paper is to “Provide safe, reliable, effective, efficient, and fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure which will best meet the needs of freight and passenger customers at improving levels of service and costs in a manner which supports government strategies for economic and social development whilst being environmentally and economically sustainable”. There have been no major changes since 1996.

Problem statement: 20 years since the White Paper was implemented, “public policy cannot be static but must be dynamic in nature. It must at all times be perceptive to the environment within which it operates. Policy therefore needs to be reconsidered and if necessary revised on a continuing basis” White Paper on National Transport Policy, September 1996.

Approach: Need to confirm the visions and objectives for the South African transport sector and subsequent relevance and evolution since 1996 by outlining key challenges facing each mode and current trends (review current transport policies, strategies, plans, frameworks, etc.). Need to include mode specialists, acquire stakeholder feedback, draft a revised White Paper and complete a public consultation process in order to revise the White Paper to reflect the policy vision for 2016.

Objective of the policy: to support the National Development Plan, National Infrastructure Plan and Government’s Programme of Action; Enable customers to access the transport systems that caters to their needs; Improve safety, security, reliability, quality and speed of transport; Improve South Africa’s competitiveness; Invest in infrastructure/transport systems that meet social, economic, strategic investment criteria. These objectives need to be achieved in an economically and environmentally sustainable way with minimal negative side effects by developing strategies to achieve these goals.
Proposed Amendments: Revise White Paper 1996 (Structure –Policy Statements –Infrastructure, Operation and Control). Revised Structure and Proposed Amendments: A. Principles, Objectives and Vision, B. Principle Modes of transport (Civil aviation, Maritime, Rail, Roads), C. Public Transport, D. Overarching Transport Issues (functions and devolution, environmental considerations, funding, integrated transport planning and infrastructure, enabling industry and human development, transport research and data).

The new Vision for South African Transport is to provide a transport system that will - Facilitate the movement of goods and people; Enable equitable access to economic opportunities and social services and Support economic and environmental sustainability and inclusive growth. To achieve this new vision, there must be an adequate supply of transport infrastructure and services in relation to demand. The supply should be – accessible, cost effective, time efficient and reliable, and safe and secure.

Next steps for the revised White Paper – cabinet submissions to Gazette; Publication and Draft of Revised White Paper for public consultation.

  • “From Rainbow-Card to Rainbow-Nation”- How Transport Authorities Around the Globe Manage Urban Transport – Mr. Matthias Handshin (This presentation is attached because it highlights the failure of the transport system over the past 20 years.)

South African public transport facilities are available, but you need to be an insider to use it effectively.

ZVV Zurich Transport Authority – a third of the Canton of Zurich population owns a ZVV travel card. 60% modal split between Zurich and Winterthur during rush hour. Revenue to cost ratio = 65%; 625 million passengers in 2015; 4556kms of network. Transport is increasing in importance in Zurich and the advantage of using it is accessing a dense and cross-linked traffic supply, high quality, good service at a fair price, one ticket covers everything, continuously linked journey (zone-based fares; unlimited travel within zones and times, free choice of transport type). ZVV originally highlighted the Zurich Transport Authority and all transport modes fall under ZVV so everything runs as an independent transport operator BUT ZVV certifies the quality. The transport network is developed according to demand (introducing a night network to the system).

Start with what you have and make it user friendly and easily accessible (schedules, stops, pricing, one ticket covering everything). Alstom designs, develops, tests, plans and constructs transport systems globally – in SA Alstom is building trains for PRASA.

  • The Changing Face of South Africa’s Shipping Legislation – Mr. Malcolm Hartwell

Operation Phakisa: Four laboratories – Marine Transport and Manufacturing, Oil and Gas; Aquaculture, Governance; Governments Role; Audit, consultation and analysis; Driver for Change.

Merchant Shipping Act: 70-year-old patchwork of regulations; IMO involvement and departure; Technical regulations; Work in Progress.

Wreck Removal: Wreck and salvage act; Move to international alignment; Accession to Nairobi Convention inevitable; Advantages include International alignment, Security, Territorial waters recommendation and Exclude limitation.

Carriage of Goods by Sea: balance between cargo and ship-owner interest; SA currently following Hague-Visby Rules; Hamburg Rules generally ignored; Rotterdam Rules: wait and see; Should be entirely dependent on our major trading partners.

Pollution Legislation: Current regime in line with international conventions; Enabling legislation; The following regulations are still outstanding and accordingly we are probably unprotected – Merchant Shipping Act (Civil Liability Convention); Merchant Shipping Act (International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund); Merchant Shipping Administration Act (International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund); Merchant Shipping Contributions Act (International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund).

  • Overview on the Proposed Roads Policy – Mr. Prasanth Mohan

Review/update of the White Paper on National Transport Policy; Roads policy development, South African Roads Authorities (RA). The role of the White Paper and the RA is to facilitate the construction and maintenance of roads, the functionality of transport systems and the safety of traffic. Transport Authorities are obliged to provide a reliable, effective, efficient and integrated transport system that supports the sustainable, economic and social development of SA. Various plans have been made but the White Paper hasn’t been fully addressed, however the Green Paper (Proposed) sets the strategic position of National Governance on all matters relating to road regulation, infrastructure, safety and non-motorised transport (NMT).

Problem Statement: Improve governance, administrations and efficiency of RAs in SA. Constructing and maintaining roads thereby guaranteeing safety for all road users and improving mobility and access of marginalised groups and rural communities. It is important to have integration across all national departments.
Objectives: Alignment with National Policy. National Policy is needed to: cover all aspects of road transport (also includes all levels of government), determine responsibilities, financial options and mechanisms for projects and programmes, policy certainty, integration of plans, job creation and skills development, recognise and integrate NMT, road safety, monitor evaluate and report.

Proposed Policy Provisions: Management, NMT (All aspects), Road Safety, Funding based on discussions with the National Treasury, Integration with all forms of road transport, Policy applying to all roads in SA managed by RAs.

Structure of Roads Policy: is a sustainable approach to roads – road infrastructure, road safety, NMT, funding, legislative framework, performance evaluation.

Number of Gaps/Challenges, Policy Statements, Benefit/Impact: road infrastructure (institutional relationships), Management, Technical capacity and employment creation, Responding to user needs (rural access, public transport, freight, regional integration with SADC), NMT, Road safety.

Many Departments and stakeholders consulted: DoT, COTO (Committee of Transport Officials – provincial and Metro RAs, SANRAL, SALGA.DPW.NT) etc.

Next steps in the Road Policy development: Cabinet to approve Green Paper, consultations workshop, Review process, Development of a White Paper for Cabinet approval, policy implementation.

  • Reviewing of Transport Policies to Create an Enabling Legislative Environment for EcoMobility Modes in the Country – Mr. Muhammed Suleman

EcoMobility is a term used to describe travel using integrated, socially inclusive, and environmentally friendly public transport options, including and integrating walking, cycling, wheeling, and passenger transporting. Sustainable Development/NEMA is protecting the environment and its resources for present and future generations. National Transport Policy creating a safe, reliable, effective, efficient and fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure which will best meet the needs of freight and passenger customers.

Most of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) come from road use (85.9%). Several mitigation strategies for emissions have been developed and include: Copenhagen Accord (2009), National Strategy for Sustainable Development and Action Plan (2011-2014); and CoP 21 (2015).
South Africans mostly rely on cars, taxis, walking, passenger buses and trains to commute. The 1996 White Paper on transport focuses on decreasing dependence on private car use by promoting other sustainable transport modes. NMT is the second most popular transport mode in South Africa. Therefore, encouraging the development of NMT is in accordance with the development of integration, social inclusion and sustainability of transport and social activity (seen in the Public Transportation Strategy (2007); Non-Motorised Transport Policy (2013); National Development Plan Vision (2030)). There is a need for: alternative fuel vehicles (low carbon emission vehicles), improving the efficiency of Government vehicle fleet and encouraging efficient vehicles (electric) by setting objectives to acquire them.

Is SA creating an enabling legislative law? DEA and City of Tshwane have acquired electric vehicles, clean and green busses have been added to the metrobus fleet, 34 hybrid cars have been added to the CoJ fleet, the City of Tshwane has the first Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) bus in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1000 CNG taxis bought and used, CoCT has 450kms of cycle facilities (CoJ only has 25kms). However, there are many cycling lanes but few cyclists utilising these lanes!

Improvements are being made but we do not see any change as the policy is outdated and cannot handle the current situation. There are no facilities to accommodate the new technology and most of the expense is paid towards motor vehicles when it should be on walking and cycling. We should have mixed land use (residential and non-residential) so people don’t have to travel far to access facilities.

  • Development of the Rail Policy – Status Update – Ms. Hlengiwe Sayd

There is no National Rail Policy (NRP) in the Rail Sector which has a negative impact for rail. Challenges and history have also affected the rail sector. Poor market shares and trucking have shown the need for a NRP in South Africa. An NRP will provide consistent strategic reform, ensure future sustainable development for rail over a realistic time period and make it affordable.

The NRP process: A. Research and analysis (desktop and legal), B. Stakeholder engagement (engage relevant stakeholders and organisations), C. National Rail Policy Green Paper (clarify governments vision and involvement). D. White Paper process (refine government vision and involvement and stakeholder engagement and discussion on proposed policy), E. National Rail Policy White Paper (Approval by Cabinet) and F. Legislation (finalised white paper and legislation Act).

Proposed policy positions include: Investing in infrastructure and track gauge; Private sector participation; Funding resources; Branchlines to categorised strategic and non-strategic; high-level strategic rail planning; Rail Economic Regulation; Institutional Arrangements (National, Provincial, Local government, infrastructure owners and operators); Skills development; safety and security and Interconnectedness with neighbours.

Comments about the Green Paper include: Investment; Standard Gauge; Institutional Arrangements; Private Sector Participation; Rail Economic Regulation; Rail planning; Branchlines; Policy; Safety and Security; Customers and passengers.

Way forward: Drafting the White Paper and consultations regarding it; Cabinet to approve the draft and Develop the Act. This is a long-term vision because of lack of maintenance of rolling stock and stations.

  • Overview on the Tolling of Roads from a National Perspective – Mr. Alex van Niekerk

Funding is needed for transport solutions and economic infrastructure; 94% of daily transport is road (increasing vehicle ownership).

Road Funding Policy: There are no new highway construction projects (excluding toll projects). South Africa has spent less than half the international benchmark on road maintenance and construction resulting in massive backlogs. Majority of funding is done through the treasury BUT policies like NDP and White Paper support direct user charges to recover capital and operations/maintenance costs from those who use the infrastructure. Focus on changing travel behaviour, promote public transport use, urban development (to promote densification and decrease urban sprawl) and providing infrastructure rapidly. Project financing is used to implement projects and obtain assets from individuals. A revenue stream is needed to finance a project (and use of water, electricity, sewage, telecoms, public transport all help generate the revenue stream). Roads are different as charges are politicised and are a public issue. There are transport funding shortfalls as well as a strengthening (rehabilitation)/regravel backlog – Road in poor condition is categorised according to the Visual Condition Index (estimated backlog R197 million and accounts for the periodic maintenance).

Road Funding Policy Conclusion: Policy is determined by Government (not SANRAL) and there are wider objectives than only funding (like behaviour change) and is biased towards providing public transport. SANRAL is the agency implementing Government’s road funding policy (many shortfalls seen in SA and demands are placed on infrastructure and services).

SANRAL: Objective is to provide safe and well-engineered roads for users. Moving people is important for economic growth, wealth and job opportunities. Good quality and well-maintained infrastructure save travel time for users. To achieve these objectives, well-maintained infrastructure is needed (routine and periodic) as well as capacity improvements (extra lanes, paved shoulders, climbing lanes). Funding options for SANRAL – Treasury allocation and Tolls (state toll roads and concessions). Future of National Road Development: tolling as an option, no tolling (less revenue/higher treasury contribution). Options if tolling is not available: need to reprioritise existing non-toll allocations, maintain (not expand) congested areas (bad for the remaining non-toll network) and could deteriorate significantly which negatively affects the economy. Alternative road networks that are not expanded will compromise mobility and the cost of congestion will increase with the social impact of congestion compromised. GFIP Future Phases: After upgrades traffic increases (attraction from alternative/supporting roads). The hidden demand yet to be seen on our road networks, future phases delayed, congestion building and 5 years before construction will begin. Automated Payment Integration: SANRAL implementing auto lanes at other toll plazas (demand on N1 North & South, N2, N3, N4, N17), it decreases the delays at plazas (processes 700-900 vehicles per hour compared with 250-300 with manual transactions at tolls).

Conclusions: There are challenges to resolve road funding (maintenance and expansion backlogs), without tolling there will be negative impacts on South African growth and job opportunities, if alternative funding options/extra budget allocations become available. Roads compete with other basic infrastructure and services demands.

  • Overview on the Road Traffic Act – Ms. Alta Swanepoel

Latest amendments were published in 2014 but have not been implemented yet while draft legislation is published for comment. Many provisions published and have been implemented in 2015-2016 while AARTO amendment bill was introduced in 2015 with approval scheduled for 2016.

NTRA provisions that have been published but not implemented yet: Provisional driving license, driving schools, vehicles 10 years old and over to be renewed every 2 years, driving hours for bus and truck drivers, parking regulations for disables people. Draft legislation that is published but not in force yet: National system for number plates, speed limits for goods vehicles, peak time truck banning, Restrict the number of people on bakkies, lowering speed limits, additional testing on drivers license renewal.

22nd Amendment: Verifying Address – People using NATIS to provide all personal details (not doing so will result in no license disc issuing); Provisional drivers license/driving schools (not in force yet) – PDL conditions to be complied with over 1 year, driving school regulation and control; Driving hours (not in force yet) – Applies to vehicles over 3500kgs GMV and busses, logbooks required, driving time limited with forced rest stops; Speed Governors – new vehicles limited with speed governors (i.e. Goods vehicle 9000kgs GMV, busses and minibuses -on reward); Consignor/consignee – offering an acceptance of goods on overloaded vehicle, consignor to determine mass of vehicle, goods declaration to be carried on vehicle, insure good to be carries on a vehicle and the vehicle itself.

Draft NTRA regulations include: Application for drivers license renewal to be evaluated (more requirements to make it functional); circumstances under which people may be carried on a goods vehicle, limit application to employees being transported during employment; No other private transportation (bona fide farmers exempt); people cannot be transported in the goods compartment of a vehicle for reward and school children cannot be transported on a bakkie; speed limits readjusted; goods vehicle use restricted on weekdays and with vehicles that are limited to 80kph (emergency vehicles, construction and maintenance vehicles exempt).

FAQs: Zimbabwe PRDS (defensive driving certificates); Temporary numbers – and exported vehicle cannot be used on a temp license, can convey goods and passengers and may only be issued once for 21 days; 21day grace period for license disc – applicable to all vehicles.

AARTO draft amendments published for comment on 2013 and submitted to parliament in 2015.

Some draft legislation has not been implemented such as AATRO driving hours, new number plates, provisional driving license, driving schools etc. Publishing draft legislation must have a time frame for implementation. It’s important to withdraw draft legislation that will not be implemented after comments are received. Some provisions are expensive to industry and government fleets and must be announced timeously.

  • The Gauteng Transport Authority and its role in an integrated public transport system – Hon Dr. Ismail Vadi

Institutional Mechanisms: Gauteng has 3 metropolitan and 2 district municipalities, and the provincial government and municipalities have shared and separate responsibilities for public transport systems in their respective jurisdictions (not good for integrated planning, coordination and system efficiencies). The Gauteng 25 years Integrated Transport Master Plan requires a Transport Authority (TA) for Gauteng City-Region to plan an integrated transport system. The Gauteng Transport Management Agency (2008) broadly filled the role of a TA but was dis-established a year later.

The Gauteng Transport Commission was established in 2013 and a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between Departments and Municipalities. The GTC manages 5 transport cooperation areas: Non-motorised; Integrated Rail Planning; BRT Systems; Intelligence Transport Systems and Travel Demand Management.

Transportation Authority Conference (2016) objective was to develop an understanding of TA and appropriateness for Gauteng. The declaration was signed to establish a TA.

Enabling Legislation: A TA needs a legislative framework, institutional arrangements and funding. The existing legislation is not adequate to change to a TA. The National Land Transport Amendment Bill has not considered the need for a TA in City-Regions.

Reasons to consider a TA: GCR is a functional transport area, public transport integration, setting norms and standards, uniform contracting, body to negotiate funding through the Treasury, pooling limited human resources, coordinate timetables, fares, etc., common public transport marketing and branding, transport planning, traffic demand model, current public transport records studies, allocate permits and permissions, easier traffic and law enforcement.

  • Legislation for creating a Transport Authority – Jack van der Merwe

Sustainable Transport: Reduce travel (change travel patterns); Shift in modes (motorised – NMT; Private-public; road – rail); Technology (Environmentally friendly; Intelligent transport solutions).

System Approach: Transport demand – need to move people, goods and services which determines design of the system. Three peak periods where demand outstrips supply (off-peak is opposite). System design – movement determines the system BUT once complete, the system is run by supply. Routes are subsequently developed by supply (irrespective of demand) which is important to attract infrequent users, tourists and convince people not to use cars, so one cannot distinguish between low and high-volume traffic routes. The design is based on accurate and up to date data (continuously updated). Develop and populate a demand model to determine current and future movement of people (E.g. EMME4 model which focuses on morning peak trips). Origin destination trip link (includes time of trip, day of the week, mode choice, route selection), the model must be able to generate current and future system travel demands and scenarios and is data driven. Supply design requires high fares for profitability (but certain parts of the population won’t be able to access it). Public transport is social therefore, there is a need for a safe, predictable and affordable system that includes everyone. What can be monitored if not focused on profitability – efficiency and effectiveness. If inefficient, subsidies will increase; if they can’t increase, the system degrades and is then used less, and people look for alternative less efficient modes (increases congestion). How to control efficiency and effectiveness – create an integrated system with transport and land use planning for all three governmental spheres, competition for route and non-route (based on accurate data to ensure routes are not overused or ticketed), law enforcement of issued permits; Ensure common: PT information, timetables, tickets, fare harmonisation, modal transport modes, centralised marketing, branding and communications which all creates a TA.

Creating a TA: Why consider creating a TA – integrated public transport, pool scarce resources (specialist skills), establish norms and standards with uniform contracts, economies of scale and a Body to negotiate with Treasury for funding. Preferred TA for Gauteng – Gauteng Global City Region (GCR) has a daily movement of commuters and is a functional transport area so the TA must be formed at higher levels than Metros. Political Landscape – has changed and new proposals are viewed with suspicion, how issues are approached is important as Metro officials are not always in favour of TA. Focus on Legislation and Funding (compliance) OR Focus on region and metro benefit (efficiency, skill and integration).

Functions of a TA: Establish norms and standards, schedules, fares, electronic tickets, standardise transport contracts, common marketing and branding, transport planning, allocate subsidies, construct infrastructure, enforce permits and permissions, coordinate people with special needs, new mobility forms.

Summary: Future vision – strategy planning and design, building, operations, maintenance, training and development. Note: Gautrain Bus Stops are a hotbed for crime. There is no proper strategy or focus.